The importance of later sensitive periods for hormone effects, such as puberty and pregnancy [e. Evidence for neurobehavioral effects of the postnatal androgen surge in typically developing boys. Identifying mechanisms by which sex and gender matter can tell us about the ways that the prenatal environment primes us to elicit and respond to our social worlds, and how our biology and experiences transact across development to shape brain structure and function that guide behavior. A Resource for the Transgender Community. Though the role of progestogens in visible breast development is uncertain, progestogens are essential for lobuloalveolar maturation of the mammary glands,  and hence are required for any transgender woman who wishes to lactate or breastfeed. Ivanka Savica neuroscientist at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, also doubts the explanatory power of the developmental mismatch hypothesis.
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews.
How Early Hormones Shape Gender Development
Preparations Follicle-stimulating hormone Human chorionic gonadotropin Luteinizing hormone Menotropin Urofollitropin. Injection IM or SC. Physical virilization Abnormalities in other hormones e. As recently as the s, many researchers argued that social norms in how we raised our children solely dictated the behavioral differences that developed between girls and boys. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia. Only a handful of studies have addressed the question of how these hormone treatments affect the brain.
Effects of within-sex variations in prenatal and early postnatal androgens. Retrieved 17 January Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Injection IM or SC. The Leydig Cell in Health and Disease. The Joys of Being Gendered Correctly.